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PNAS:中世纪早期巴伐利亚古DNA

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发表于 2018-3-14 22:32 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
本帖最后由 wmch_928 于 2018-3-14 22:37 编辑

Population genomic analysis of elongated skulls reveals extensive female-biased immigration in Early Medieval Bavaria

Krishna R. Veeramah, Andreas Rott, Melanie Groß, Lucy van Dorp, Saioa López, Karola Kirsanow, Christian Sell, Jens Blöcher, Daniel Wegmann, Vivian Link, Zuzana Hofmanová, Joris Peters, Bernd Trautmann, Anja Gairhos, Jochen Haberstroh, Bernd Päffgen, Garrett Hellenthal, Brigitte Haas-Gebhard, Michaela Harbeck and Joachim Burger

Abstract
Modern European genetic structure demonstrates strong correlations with geography, while genetic analysis of prehistoric humans has indicated at least two major waves of immigration from outside the continent during periods of cultural change. However, population-level genome data that could shed light on the demographic processes occurring during the intervening periods have been absent. Therefore, we generated genomic data from 41 individuals dating mostly to the late 5th/early 6th century AD from present-day Bavaria in southern Germany, including 11 whole genomes (mean depth 5.56×). In addition we developed a capture array to sequence neutral regions spanning a total of 5 Mb and 486 functional polymorphic sites to high depth (mean 72×) in all individuals. Our data indicate that while men generally had ancestry that closely resembles modern northern and central Europeans, women exhibit a very high genetic heterogeneity; this includes signals of genetic ancestry ranging from western Europe to East Asia. Particularly striking are women with artificial skull deformations; the analysis of their collective genetic ancestry suggests an origin in southeastern Europe. In addition, functional variants indicate that they also differed in visible characteristics. This example of female-biased migration indicates that complex demographic processes during the Early Medieval period may have contributed in an unexpected way to shape the modern European genetic landscape. Examination of the panel of functional loci also revealed that many alleles associated with recent positive selection were already at modern-like frequencies in European populations ∼1,500 years ago.

PNAS 2018; published ahead of print March 12, 2018,
https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1719880115

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 楼主| 发表于 2018-3-14 22:35 | 显示全部楼层
人工颅骨变形



 楼主| 发表于 2018-3-14 22:46 | 显示全部楼层
Sample Raw reads Mkdup Not covered Av.depth stdv. Av.length mD5 Hg
AED_92 783869 54621 0 380.15 73.58 115.32 0.26 U4a
AED_106 427042 28648 0 232.41 29.47 134.54 0.21 V3
AED_125 713424 52848 0 341.24 63.85 107 0.26 K1a
AED_204 453877 29951 0 247.91 34.32 137.29 0.20 X2b
AED_249 807922 31854 0 263.83 23.14 137.24 0.21 T2c1d1a
AED_432 843872 55187 0 384.73 61.63 115.53 0.15 H1h1
AED_513 515293 28706 0 234.28 28.82 135.36 0.20 H7a
AED_1108 590764 27291 0 214.59 29.44 130.41 0.24 U4a2a
AED_1119 654199 30625 0 255.74 30.25 138.49 0.20 W1e1a
AED_1135 431310 28675 0 228.33 33.68 132.06 0.26 H60a
AEH_I 925952 46783 0 322.38 52.77 114.19 0.26 H5
ALH_1 extracted from shotgun 39011 105 196.55 92.16 83.48 0.32 J2a2b
ALH_2 793978 31641 0 252.11 19.70 132.03 0.22 H2a2a1
ALH_3 626400 31782 0 279.12 22.35 145.52 0.16 H2a2b
ALH_10 extracted from shotgun 30461 148 160.80 76.85 87.46 0.30 I1
BIM_33 288980 24076 0 189.41 38.42 130.49 0.24 U5b1b
BIM_37 310033 23935 0 183.41 34.02 127.08 0.22 T2b16
FN_2 extracted from shotgun 37086 63 169.61 84.09 75.78 0.35 H3
KER_1 280050 18809 0 123.39 29.83 108.79 0.24 HV9a
NW_54 433135 26196 0 198.90 36.41 125.93 0.32 C4a1a
NW_255 600149 30100 0 238.12 30.55 131.19 0.28 H18b
STR_220 388191 27877 0 229.69 30.19 136.65 0.23 U5b2b
STR_228 529897 29346 0 242.38 28.80 136.97 0.25 T2b21
STR_241 288920 26989 0 220.45 36.94 135.47 0.21 H1
STR_248 501335 29822 0 251.39 30.92 139.81 0.20 H11a2
STR_266 646073 76859 0 557.68 86.43 120.23 0.26 J1c5
STR_300 646822 30950 0 235.89 27.60 126.4 0.09* J1c10
STR_310 642024 29719 0 232.36 19.08 129.55 0.24 H7
STR_316 767155 31331 0 244.16 20.09 129.13 0.22 H3
STR_328 508046 27351 0 192.33 22.97 116.52 0.26 U5a1h
STR_355 722970 32215 0 257.87 19.71 132.64 0.22 T2b
STR_360 612490 29716 0 226.47 24.93 126.29 0.23 H5
STR_393 836998 53281 0 395.41 52.85 122.97 0.26 H5a1
STR_480 714467 30790 0 255.82 23.01 137.67 0.21 J1c2o
STR_486 747838 50819 0 399.05 60.18 130.11 0.24 T2b
STR_491 561070 30011 0 234.94 26.87 129.72 0.23 T2b
STR_502 605930 31131 0 212.69 21.27 113.21 0.31 T1
STR_535 467471 27313 0 224.42 31.26 136.28 0.23 HV9
VIM_2 849940 32620 0 283.19 18.88 143.86 0.20 H7
发表于 2018-3-15 07:46 | 显示全部楼层
人工颅骨变形
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wmch_928 发表于 2018-3-14 22:35

人工颅骨变形这种奇特的风俗似乎与y-Q人群呈现正相关(美洲与西伯利亚,中国古代某些地区好像也有),是不是与mt也存在某种关系,目前还没有看出规律性
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