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The Beaker Phenomenon And The Genomic Transformation Of Northwest Europe

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发表于 2017-5-11 11:41 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
本帖最后由 cpan0256 于 2017-5-11 11:43 编辑

Inigo Olalde et al.  Posted May 9, 2017  bioRxiv

http://biorxiv.org/content/early/2017/05/09/135962

Abstract
Bell Beaker pottery spread across western and central Europe beginning around 2750 BCE before disappearing between 2200-1800 BCE. The mechanism of its expansion is a topic of long-standing debate, with support for both cultural diffusion and human migration. We present new genome-wide ancient DNA data from 170 Neolithic, Copper Age and Bronze Age Europeans, including 100 Beaker-associated individuals. In contrast to the Corded Ware Complex, which has previously been identified as arriving in central Europe following migration from the east, we observe limited genetic affinity between Iberian and central European Beaker Complex-associated individuals, and thus exclude migration as a significant mechanism of spread between these two regions. However, human migration did have an important role in the further dissemination of the Beaker Complex, which we document most clearly in Britain using data from 80 newly reported individuals dating to 3900-1200 BCE. British Neolithic farmers were genetically similar to contemporary populations in continental Europe and in particular to Neolithic Iberians, suggesting that a portion of the farmer ancestry in Britain came from the Mediterranean rather than the Danubian route of farming expansion. Beginning with the Beaker period, and continuing through the Bronze Age, all British individuals harboured high proportions of Steppe ancestry and were genetically closely related to Beaker-associated individuals from the Lower Rhine area. We use these observations to show that the spread of the Beaker Complex to Britain was mediated by migration from the continent that replaced >90% of Britain's Neolithic gene pool within a few hundred years, continuing the process that brought Steppe ancestry into central and northern Europe 400 years earlier.

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发表于 2017-7-3 14:48 | 显示全部楼层
作者团队:Morten  E.  Allentoft, Ian Armit, Kristian Kristiansen, Nadin Rohland, Swapan Mallick, Thomas Booth, Anna Szécsényi-Nagy, Alissa Mittnik, Eveline Altena, Mark Lipson, Iosif Lazaridis, Nick J. Patterson, Nasreen Broomandkhoshbacht, Yoan Diekmann, Zuzana Faltyskova, Daniel M. Fernandes, Matthew Ferry, Eadaoin Harney, Peter de Knijff, Megan Michel, Jonas Oppenheimer, Kristin Stewardson, Alistair Barclay, Kurt W. Alt, Azucena Avilés Fernández, Eszter Bánffy, Maria Bernabò-Brea, David Billoin, Concepción Blasco, Clive Bonsall, Laura Bonsall, Tim Allen, Lindsey Büster, Sophie Carver, Laura Castells Navarro, Oliver Edward Craig, Gordon T. Cook, Barry Cunliffe, Anthony Denaire, Kirsten Egging Dinwiddy, Natasha Dodwell, Michal Ernée, Christopher Evans, Milan Kuchařík, Joan Francès Farré, Harry Fokkens, Chris Fowler, Michiel Gazenbeek, Rafael Garrido Pena, María Haber-Uriarte, Elżbieta Haduch, Gill Hey, Nick Jowett, Timothy Knowles, Ken Massy, Saskia Pfrengle, Philippe Lefranc, Olivier Lemercier, Arnaud Lefebvre, Joaquín Lomba Maurandi, Tona Majó, Jacqueline I. McKinley, Kathleen McSweeney, Mende Balázs Gusztáv, Alessandra Modi, Gabriella Kulcsár, Viktória Kiss, András Czene, Róbert Patay, Anna Endródi, Kitti Köhler, Tamás Hajdu, João Luís Cardoso, Corina Liesau, Michael Parker Pearson, Piotr Włodarczak, T. Douglas Price, Pilar Prieto, Pierre-Jérôme Rey, Patricia Ríos, Roberto Risch, Manuel A. Rojo Guerra, Aurore Schmitt, Joël Serralongue, Ana Maria Silva, Václav Smrčka, Luc Vergnaud, João Zilhão, David Caramelli, Thomas Higham, Volker Heyd, Alison Sheridan, Karl-Göran Sjögren, Mark G. Thomas, Philipp W. Stockhammer, Ron Pinhasi, Johannes Krause, Wolfgang Haak, Ian Barnes, Carles Lalueza-Fox, David Reich

   团队绝对是超豪华级的,可谓是欧美业界精英倾巢出动吖,呵呵
发表于 2017-7-3 15:35 | 显示全部楼层
At Szigetszentmiklós in  Hungary,  we  find Beaker  Complex associated individuals with very different proportions (from 0% to 74%) of Steppe ancestry but overlapping dates. This genetic heterogeneity is consistent with early stages of mixture between previously established European farmers and migrants with Steppe ancestry. An implication is that, even at a local scale, the Beaker Complex was associated with people of diverse ancestries.
-----------------------------------------

很明显,即便是BB人群内部也是存在明显差异的,也生动反映出外来的草原人群与当地农夫融合的复杂过程~
发表于 2017-7-3 16:34 | 显示全部楼层
下面这幅图倒是可以反映出不少情况
BB-颜那亚-英国青铜.png

1、东欧颜那亚与萨马拉人群相比早期的欧洲农民,明显多了伊朗农夫成分(约为35%左右,萨马拉还多了一些很有限的粉红色,难道是乌拉尔人群的成分?),这个与之前的分析一致;
2、中欧Corded_Ware文化人群与颜那亚人群比较接近,但是Corded_Ware文化人群明显多了新石器欧洲农夫常见的蓝色,即小亚农夫成分,约为20%左右;
3、beaker人群南部差异较明显。南欧的beaker与之前的新石器欧洲农夫基本无差别,但是中欧、荷兰与英伦的beaker人群则在保持新石器欧洲农夫成分的同时,还多了一些为颜那亚共享的伊朗农夫成分;
4、不列颠的BB人群相对比较接近CWC人群,新石器农夫成分也比较均衡,约为25%;
5、欧洲土著成分WHG,从旧石器到新石器一直到现今,为欧洲所有人群共有,而且比例一直不低,提示欧洲血统的前后延续性(这个可以给那些整天梦想什么‘血统替换论者’作参考,呵呵)
发表于 2017-7-3 16:40 | 显示全部楼层
常染说明不了什么,估计是父系被徹底替换,母系被保留了一些
发表于 2017-7-3 17:33 | 显示全部楼层
5# Manaus

大比例的替换是可以成立的,不过不是青铜无敌人群干的,而是铜石晚期已经在欧洲许多地方扩张成功的BB人干的。
另外,为什么在不列颠出现这种种系替换,在南欧包括法国南部却没有发生,这个我很早以前就说了,是因为西欧中高纬度地区本来就人口稀少,那一个快速人口扩张的人群来填空是非常正常的~
发表于 2017-7-3 18:23 | 显示全部楼层
有一点非常有意思,新石器英伦地区的y几乎是清一色的I2a各支系,到了BB时期与青铜早期,又完全不见踪影,可是现在英伦地区除了爱尔兰,现在不列颠人的I2a并不少,其中I2a2a1在苏格兰与爱尔兰北部还颇为高频,而I2a2a4目前在英伦三岛包括爱尔兰的盎格鲁撒克逊姓氏人群以及他们的德国老家频度不低。
另外,I2a2b竟然出现在终结德国BB文化的Unetice culture文化之中,更是以77%的高频出现在Unetice culture的继承者瓮坛子文化的某个遗址之中,其中意味耐人寻味,呵呵

England_NeolithicI2a2a1
England_NeolithicI2a2
England_NeolithicI2a1b
England_NeolithicI
Scotland_NeolithicI2a1b
Scotland_NeolithicI2a1b1
Scotland_NeolithicI2a1b
Scotland_NeolithicI2a2a1a1a2
Scotland_NeolithicI2a1b1
Scotland_NeolithicI2a1b1
Scotland_NeolithicI2a1b1
Scotland_NeolithicI2a2a1a1a
Scotland_NeolithicI2a2a
Scotland_NeolithicI
Scotland_NeolithicI2a2a1b
Scotland_NeolithicI2a2
Scotland_NeolithicI2a1b1
Scotland_NeolithicI2
Scotland_NeolithicI2a1b
Scotland_NeolithicI2a1b
Scotland_NeolithicI2a2a1a1a
Scotland_NeolithicI2a1b
Scotland_NeolithicI2a1b
Scotland_NeolithicI2a2a1
Scotland_NeolithicI2a2a
发表于 2017-7-3 21:01 | 显示全部楼层
有一点非常有意思,新石器英伦地区的y几乎是清一色的I2a各支系,到了BB时期与青铜早期,又完全不见踪影,可是现在英伦地区除了爱尔兰,现在不列颠人的I2a并不少,其中I2a2a1在苏格兰与爱尔兰北部还颇为高频,而I2a2a ...
imvivi001 发表于 2017-7-3 18:23

刚才核实了一下,出现在Unetice culture文化之中的I最新测定是I2c,而高频出现在瓮坛文化的某个遗址的古人的y-I,当年只有str数据,原作者没有判定属于哪一个haplo,但是专家根据str数值判断为I,还有一些冒进的爱好者判断为I2a2b或I2a2a,好在这批遗骨目前依然保持良好,相信最终会真相大白
发表于 2017-7-4 07:42 | 显示全部楼层
下面这幅图倒是可以反映出不少情况
51891
...
5、欧洲土著成分WHG,从旧石器到新石器一直到现今,为欧洲所有人群共有,而且比例一直不低,提示欧洲血统的前后延续性(这个可以给那些整天梦想什么‘血统替换论者’作参考,呵呵)
imvivi001 发表于 2017-7-3 16:34

<
IDColloquial
ID
Genetic
Sex
mtDNA
Y
haplogroup-ISOGG-2016
I0585LaBrana1MU5b2cC1a2
I1500HUNG372,
NE5
MJ1c1C1a2
I1102M11-354MK1a3aC1a2
I1496HUNG352,
NE6
MK1a3a3C1a2
Tep006TP&#213;10
SK
21
MN1a1a1C1a2
GoyetQ116-1_publishedGoyetQ116-1MMC1a2
Vestonice16Vestonice16MU5C1a2
Kostenki14Kostenki14M..C1b

其实y-C1与y-I2一样,堪称旧石器欧洲两大成功猎采者人群,可是为啥二者的最终结局如此的不同,前者以凄惨收场,后者不断地发扬光大,旧石器--新石器--铜石时期--青铜时期,一直到现在。个中缘由,值得深思...
 楼主| 发表于 2019-12-15 05:17 | 显示全部楼层
按照古物制作钟形杯文化的钟形杯。

bell-beaker.jpg
发表于 2019-12-15 09:25 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 lll 于 2019-12-15 09:37 编辑
imvivi001 发表于 2017-7-3 16:34
下面这幅图倒是可以反映出不少情况


但古中亚南俄草原的yamna牧民也是WHG占多数的,虽然有比现代欧洲人高得多的ANE和Basal Eurasian,现代欧洲人的WHG成分可能很大程度是来自草原牧民,而不是牧民迁徙到欧洲前的本土的狩猎采集者。这张图也说明草原牧民对南欧以外的欧洲人血统贡献非常大
2A5A497C00000578-3153965-The_exact_mix_is_based_on_region_People_whose_families_.jpg

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发表于 2019-12-15 23:14 | 显示全部楼层
lll 发表于 2019-12-15 09:25
但古中亚南俄草原的yamna牧民也是WHG占多数的,虽然有比现代欧洲人高得多的ANE和Basal Eurasian,现代 ...


   视乎你说的是欧洲的哪一部分?  东北欧与北欧分别是WHG的两个子类型即EHG与SHG,其中两石时期EHG是WHG与一定比例的ANE的混合。 欧洲人的B.E.的来源也是多渠道多层次的,新石器农夫带来一些,草原人群也带来一些,希腊人的亚洲先祖也带来一些,还有不少是罗马时期的地中海东岸移民带来的~
发表于 2019-12-16 00:41 | 显示全部楼层
imvivi001 发表于 2019-12-15 23:14
视乎你说的是欧洲的哪一部分?  东北欧与北欧分别是WHG的两个子类型即EHG与SHG,其中两石时期EHG是W ...

写错了,草原牧民的basal eurasian或许并不比现代欧洲人高,但ANE成分比现代欧洲人高得多。11楼那副图貌似显示草原牧民对东欧平原一直到不列颠岛这一片空旷的欧洲北部平原区有很大基因贡献
 楼主| 发表于 2019-12-16 13:16 | 显示全部楼层
Bell Beaker文化时期的陶器有大有小。但在英文考古文章里,好像beaker是指较小的、可以手持的用来喝水或饮料的陶制、金属或玻璃器皿。钟形杯是我从网上抄来的一个翻译。我并不知道考古学界对Bell Beaker的标准中文翻译。

见到两篇关于钟形杯文化东支的Y单倍群R1b-P312人群的家庭结构和社会制度的文章。一篇已发表,另一篇是预印本。暂时不开新帖,就跟在下面了。
 楼主| 发表于 2019-12-16 13:26 | 显示全部楼层
Kinship-based social inequality in Bronze Age Europe

Mittnik et al.
Science 366, 731–734 (2019);8 November 2019

Abstract: Kinship-based social inequality in Bronze Age Europe Revealing and understanding the mechanisms behind social inequality in prehistoric societies is a major challenge. By combining genome-wide data, isotopic evidence, and anthropological and archaeological data, we have gone beyond the dominating supraregional approaches in archaeogenetics to shed light on the complexity of social status, inheritance rules, and mobility during the Bronze Age. We applied a deep microregional approach and analyzed genome-wide data of 104 human individuals deriving from farmstead-related cemeteries from the Late Neolithic to the Middle Bronze Age in southern Germany.  Our results reveal individual households, lasting several generations, that consisted of a high-status core family and unrelated low-status individuals; a social organization accompanied by patrilocality and female exogamy; and the stability of this system over 700 years.

摘要粗略翻译:
从青铜时代欧洲基于亲属关系的社会不平等来揭示和理解史前社会不平等背后的机制是一个重大挑战。通过将全基因组数据、同位素证据和人类学和考古数据结合起来,我们超越了考古遗传学中占主导地位的超区域方法来揭示青铜时代的社会地位、继承规则和流动性的复杂性。我们应用了一种深层微区方法,分析了德国南部新石器时代晚期至青铜时代中期的农庄相关墓地中104个人的基因组数据。我们的研究结果揭示出几个由一个高地位核心家庭和无血缘关系的低地位个人组成的持续数代的个体家庭;一个伴随着父权制和女性外婚制的社会组织;以及这一制度700多年来的稳定性。

文章最后一段及粗略翻译:
The examination of ancient family structures and social inequality are key aspects of understanding the social organization of ancient populations [18, 20–22]. Conventionally, status differences in the EBA were assumed to exist between a large number of peasants and a small number of outstanding elites, which could have been wealthy farmers or princely leaders and their kin group who exerted social and economic control over large areas or populaces [6, 23]. Here, we show a different kind of social inequality in prehistory: complex households that consisted of (i) a higher-status core family, passing on wealth and status to descendants; (ii) unrelated, wealthy, and high-status nonlocal women; and (iii) local, low-status individuals.  On the basis of comparisons of grave goods, several of the high-status nonlocal females could have come from areas inhabited by the &Uacute;nětice culture [6]—that is, from a distance of at least 350 km. Because the EBA evidence from most of Southern Germany is very similar to the Lech valley, we suggest that social structures comparable with our microregion existed in a much broader area. The EBA households in the Lech valley, however, seemsimilar to the later historically known “oikos” [24], the household sphere of classic Greece, as well as the Roman “familia,” both comprising the kin-related family and their slaves [25]. Only now, the deep history of intrahousehold inequality has become visible.

对古代家庭结构和社会不平等的考察是理解古代人口社会组织的关键方面[18,20–22]。按传统惯例,青铜时代早期的社会地位差异被认为是存在于大量农民和少数杰出精英之间。这些精英可能原来是富有的农民或王室领袖及其亲属团体,他们对大片地区或民众施加了社会和经济控制[ 6,23]。在这里、我们展示史前社会的另一种社会不平等现象:复杂的家庭,包括(i)一个地位较高的核心家庭,将财富和地位传给后代;(ii)无遗传关系、富有和地位较高的非本地女性;以及(iii)当地地位较低的个人。根据墓葬物品的比较,几个地位高的非本地女性可能来自Unětice文化区,也就是说,距离至少350公里。由于来自德国南部大部分地区的青铜时代早期的证据与莱希河谷(Lech valley)的非常接近,我们认为相似于与我们所考察的微区域的社会结构存在于广泛的地区。此外,莱希河谷青铜时代早期的家族似乎与后来历史上著名的“oikos”[24]即古希腊的家族圈以及罗马的“familia”相似,这后二者都由亲属家庭及其奴隶组成[25]。直到了现在,这一家庭内部不平等的深层历史才变得明显。
发表于 2019-12-16 13:37 | 显示全部楼层
imvivi001 发表于 2017-7-4 07:42
<
其实y-C1与y-I2一样,堪称旧石器欧洲两大成功猎采者人群,可是为啥二者的最终结局如此的不同,前者以 ...


日文wiki 给出一种解释,进入欧洲的人群C1a2为主的人群和 I 人群是两拨人。第一波主要是C1a2为主的C1人群,大概在4万年到3万年左右。第二波才是以I为主的族群,大概在1万3千年前。
2019-12-16_142950.jpg
 楼主| 发表于 2019-12-16 13:47 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 cpan0256 于 2019-12-16 13:49 编辑

Kinship and social organization in Copper Age Europe. A cross-disciplinary analysis of archaeology, DNA, isotopes, and anthropology from two Bell Beaker cemeteries

Karl-Goran Sjogren et al.
biorsiv.org

摘要与粗略翻译:
Abstract: We present a high-resolution cross-disciplinary analysis of kinship structure and social institutions in two Late Copper Age Bell Beaker culture cemeteries of South Germany containing 24 and 18 burials, of which 34 provided genetic information. By combining archaeological, anthropological, genetic and isotopic evidence we are able to document the internal kinship and residency structure of the cemeteries and the socially organizing principles of these local communities. The buried individuals represent four to six generations of two family groups, one nuclear family at the Alburg cemetery, and one seemingly more extended at Irlbach. While likely monogamous, they practiced exogamy, as six out of eight non-locals are women. Maternal genetic diversity is high with 23 different mitochondrial haplotypes from 34 individuals, whereas all males belong to one single Y-chromosome haplogroup without any detectable contribution from Y-chromosomes typical of the farmers who had been the sole inhabitants of the region hundreds of years before. This provides evidence for the society being patrilocal, perhaps as a way of protecting property among the male line, while in marriage from many different places secured social and political networks and prevented inbreeding. We also find evidence that the communities practiced selection for which of their children (aged 0-14 years) received a proper burial, as buried juveniles were in all but one case boys, suggesting the priority of young males in the cemeteries. This is plausibly linked to the exchange of foster children as part of an expansionist kinship system which is well attested from later Indo-European-speaking cultural groups.

我们对南德两座铜器时代晚期的钟形杯文化墓地的亲属结构和社会制度进行了高分辨率的跨学科分析。一个墓地包括24个墓葬,另一个包括18个墓葬,两墓地中34个墓葬提供了遗传信息。通过结合考古学、人类学、遗传学和同位素证据,我们能够记录墓地的内部亲属关系和居住结构以及当地社区的社会组织原则。埋葬的个体代表了两个家族的四到六代人,一个是阿尔堡(Alburg)公墓的核心家庭,另一个在埃尔巴赫(Irlbach)似乎延申更广些。他们可能实行一夫一妻制。因为八分之六的非本地人是女性,所以他们是实行外婚制的。母体遗传多样性很高,在34个个体有23种不同的线粒体单倍型。但是,所有的男性都属于一个单一的Y染色体单倍型,检测不到来自数百年前该地区唯一居民的农民的典型Y单倍型的贡献。这证实当时的社会实行父权制,后者也许是保持财产由父系传承的一个方式。而且通过男性成员与来自不同地方的配偶的婚姻,保障了家庭的社交和政治网络,也防止了近亲繁殖。我们还发现社区有选择性的为死去的儿童(0-14岁)举行适当的埋葬。墓葬中的青少年只有一名不是男的,这表明在墓地中男童有优先权。这似乎关联到寄养儿童的交换,后者是在后来印欧语系文化人群中充分显示出的一种扩充的亲属关系制度的一部分。
 楼主| 发表于 2019-12-16 14:09 | 显示全部楼层
17楼文章表1(一部分)。
Table 1. Overview table of Irlbach and Alburg grave number, osteological 291 and genetic sex, age group at death, burial position, archaeological dating/period, 87Sr/86Sr enamel and bone values, δ18Oc values, mtDNA haptotype and Y DNA haplogroup. For full details see SI table.
table1.jpg
 楼主| 发表于 2019-12-16 14:10 | 显示全部楼层
17楼文章表1(续)。
table11.jpg
 楼主| 发表于 2019-12-16 14:14 | 显示全部楼层
17楼文章图3。
Fig 3. Pie chart of mtDNA haplotype distribution of A) Irlbach and B) Alburg, in comparison C) with the Bell Beaker cemeteries around Augsburg.
Fig3.jpg
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