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蓝海人类学在线 Ryan WEI's Forum of Anthropology

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Tai People Originate from Southern China(常染色体STR)

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发表于 2013-4-13 08:47 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
Autosomal STRs Provide Genetic Evidence for the Hypothesis That Tai People Originate from Southern China

Hao Sun, Chi Zhou, Xiaoqin Huang, Keqin Lin, Lei Shi, Liang Yu, Shuyuan Liu, Jiayou Chu mail, Zhaoqing Yang

Abstract

Tai people are widely distributed in Thailand, Laos and southwestern China and are a large population of Southeast Asia. Although most anthropologists and historians agree that modern Tai people are from southwestern China and northern Thailand, the place from which they historically migrated remains controversial. Three popular hypotheses have been proposed: northern origin hypothesis, southern origin hypothesis or an indigenous origin. We compared the genetic relationships between the Tai in China and their “siblings” to test different hypotheses by analyzing 10 autosomal microsatellites. The genetic data of 916 samples from 19 populations were analyzed in this survey. The autosomal STR data from 15 of the 19 populations came from our previous study (Lin et al., 2010). 194 samples from four additional populations were genotyped in this study: Han (Yunnan), Dai (Dehong), Dai (Yuxi) and Mongolian. The results of genetic distance comparisons, genetic structure analyses and admixture analyses all indicate that populations from northern origin hypothesis have large genetic distances and are clearly differentiated from the Tai. The simulation-based ABC analysis also indicates this. The posterior probability of the northern origin hypothesis is just 0.04 [95%CI: (0.01–0.06)]. Conversely, genetic relationships were very close between the Tai and populations from southern origin or an indigenous origin hypothesis. Simulation-based ABC analyses were also used to distinguish the southern origin hypothesis from the indigenous origin hypothesis. The results indicate that the posterior probability of the southern origin hypothesis [0.640, 95%CI: (0.524–0.757)] is greater than that of the indigenous origin hypothesis [0.324, 95%CI: (0.211–0.438)]. Therefore, we propose that the genetic evidence does not support the hypothesis of northern origin. Our genetic data indicate that the southern origin hypothesis has higher probability than the other two hypotheses statistically, suggesting that the Tai people most likely originated from southern China.
journal.pone.0060822.g001.png

http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0060822

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发表于 2013-4-13 14:30 | 显示全部楼层
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发表于 2013-4-13 14:35 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 wolfgang 于 2013-4-13 14:49 编辑

文中汉族采样的地方有四处,分别是山东,甘肃,广东,云南。当K=6时,云南汉族的成分并不和地理位置较接近的甘肃汉族,广东汉族较接近,而是和地理位置较远的山东汉族较接近。并且云南汉族和云南的少数民族差异非常大。这说明云南汉族乃至西南汉族来源确实如历史所记载,主要来自于华中和华东地区,而和西北,岭南关系不大。
发表于 2013-4-13 20:54 | 显示全部楼层
K=6时,黄色成分在塔吉克族中比例最高,在维吾尔族中比例次之,可以认为是西部欧亚成分。绿色在蒙古族中比例最高,其他都不高,可以认为是古蒙古高原成分。K=5时的绿色才是乌拉尔成分。从k=5到K=6的变化中,不仅有从乌拉尔成分到古蒙古高原成分的变化,还有一种新的成分出现,就是紫色浅紫色成分。这种成分在撒拉族中比例最高,在西藏藏族,东乡族,彝族,广西mulan人,维吾尔族,哈尼族,甘肃汉族,广东汉族中都有一定分布,但在云南汉族,山东汉族中基本不存在。这种成分形成的原因和古蒙古高原类似,也是由乌拉尔成分和红色成分为主融合而成,但是和古蒙古高原成分不同的是,其中缺乏西部欧亚成分。我认为这种成分是在西北生成,很可能代表氐羌成分。
发表于 2013-4-13 23:03 | 显示全部楼层
西藏藏族的常染和彝语系的彝族,哈尼族并不接近,和地理上较为接近的撒拉,东乡也不接近。最接近的分别是三地的汉族,即甘肃汉族,山东汉族,云南汉族。和甘肃汉族的差异是甘肃汉族有一定的古蒙古高原成分,而西藏藏族基本没有。和山东汉族相比,西藏藏族有一定的氐羌成分,山东汉族没有。这样看来,汉藏分离在整个汉藏语系的分化中确实是很迟的。而且汉藏分离约为5000年这个时间段恰巧和5000年前的气候剧变和人群大迁徙是一个时间点上的。我的看法是,在5000年前,藏族的最先一直在甘肃天水大地湾一带。在5000年气候大剧变的年代里,藏族的祖先离开了大地湾一带,沿着四川盆地的西缘来到了卡诺,即现在的昌都一带。然后又继续西进来到了现在藏区的核心地带。而那些没有离开大地湾一带的藏族祖先的兄弟族群则和不远处西方的狩猎-采集人群融合,更多的采用了西方的狩猎-采集人群的生活方式,形成了氐羌族群。也就是说,汉藏分离和氐羌族群的形成基本是一个时间段的事情。有点要说明,就是天水市在地理上和陕西是相邻的,和关中平原联系极为密切。当然我们知道,在5000年前,就已经有汉藏语系的族群南下川西高原了。我觉得在常染上相对西藏藏族比汉族更疏远的彝语支的族群譬如彝族,哈尼族都在此列。
发表于 2013-4-13 23:11 | 显示全部楼层
记得看过一篇文章,说泰国人群的Y染色体是南亚土著特色占主流
发表于 2013-4-13 23:33 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 wolfgang 于 2013-4-14 00:36 编辑

7# sahaliyan
大地湾在现代行政区域上属于甘肃,但在地理上和关中紧密相连,在古代文化上的联系也是和关中更密切而不是甘肃其他地域。现代行政区域的划分和古代族群的分布不是一个概念。甘肃的天水,庆阳,平凉三个地级市在地理上都属于渭河流域的一部分.在地理上甘肃可以这样划分,酒泉、嘉峪关、张掖、金昌、武威五市为河西走廊,兰州、白银、临夏和定西西部为黄河流域,这也是现代甘肃的核心区域,天水,定西东部为陇右,这是古代甘肃的核心区域,在地理上属于渭河流域,但又被六盘山给从关中平原隔离开来,庆阳,平凉,则和关中地理上属于一体,陇南属于长江流域,属于川西高原的一部分,甘南则是青藏高原黄河流域的一部分,和青海联系密切。
发表于 2013-6-12 12:29 | 显示全部楼层
13# 疁殇1958
土著的影响肯定有,但是现在看来不是主流。
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