Google

蓝海人类学在线 Ryan WEI's Forum of Anthropology

 找回密码
 注册
查看: 9487|回复: 23

非洲狩猎-采集部落常染色体分析,2.5%未知远古种系混合

[复制链接]
发表于 2012-7-27 19:18 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
本帖最后由 ranhaer 于 2012-7-28 12:09 编辑

Cell, 26 July 2012
Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
10.1016/j.cell.2012.07.009

Evolutionary History and Adaptation from High-Coverage Whole-Genome Sequences of Diverse African Hunter-Gatherers

Authors

Joseph Lachance, Benjamin Vernot, Clara C. Elbers, Bart Ferwerda, Alain Froment, Jean-Marie Bodo, Godfrey Lema, Wenqing Fu, Thomas B. Nyambo, Timothy R. Rebbeck, Kun Zhang, Joshua M. Akey, Sarah A. Tishkoff


Highlights
1, 13.4 million variants identified in African hunter-gatherers, many of which are novel
2,Evidence of archaic admixture found in the genomes of African hunter-gatherers
3,Selection scans implicate loci involved in taste perception, metabolism, and immunity
4, Genetic associations with height are found for Pygmy variants located on chromosome 3.

Summary

To reconstruct modern human evolutionary history and identify loci that have shaped hunter-gatherer adaptation, we sequenced the whole genomes of five individuals in each of three different hunter-gatherer populations at >60× coverage: Pygmies from Cameroon and Khoesan-speaking Hadza and Sandawe from Tanzania. We identify 13.4 million variants, substantially increasing the set of known human variation. We found evidence of archaic introgression in all three populations, and the distribution of time to most recent common ancestors from these regions is similar to that observed for introgressed regions in Europeans. Additionally, we identify numerous loci that harbor signatures of local adaptation, including genes involved in immunity, metabolism, olfactory and taste perception, reproduction, and wound healing. Within the Pygmy population, we identify multiple highly differentiated loci that play a role in growth and anterior pituitary function and are associated with height.


发表:
http://www.cell.com/retrieve/pii/S0092867412008318


报道:

Genetic calculations suggest the interbreeding took place between 20,000 and 80,000 years ago.


The archaic sequences make up only 2.5 percent of the genomes of the living hunter-gatherers, and there is no evidence that they are being favored by natural selection.
发表于 2012-7-28 12:11 | 显示全部楼层
Report:
http://io9.com/5929245/does-the- ... wn-race-of-hominids
Does the African genome hold the secrets of a previously unknown species of hominid? [url=]Robert T. Gonzalez[/url]

Researchers have just finished performing the most comprehensive genetic analysis of modern day Africans ever. And they've turned up some absolutely incredible results.
Their findings suggest humans are more genetically diverse than we'd previously believed. But they also show that ancient humans may have interbred with an unknown species of hominin — what researchers surmise "could have been a sibling species to Neanderthals."
When it comes to genetic variation, there's no place on Earth like Africa. Numerous studies in recent years have revealed that human genomic diversity is greater in Africa than anywhere else on Earth. In fact, if you were to move outward from the continent along the migratory paths of early Homo sapiens, taking genetic samples along the way, you'd find that human populations tend to become more and more genetically similar the farther from Africa you get (the result of something called the founder effect).
To quote paleontologist Mike Novacek, provost of science at the American Museum of Natural History, the genes of modern day Africans "tell a very fascinating historical and evolutionary story about populations, where they once were, where they went to in migrations, and so forth." Adds Novacek, "To find out where you are, you need a map," and genetic studies of modern day African populations give us "orientation for a lot of great scientific and applied questions."
And yet, such investigations are lacking. In a groundbreaking new genomics study, published in the latest issue of Cell, a team of researchers led by geneticists Joseph Lachance and Sarah Tishkoff notes that "despite the important role that African populations have played in human evolutionary history, they remain one of the most understudied groups in human genomics." To address this disparity, the researchers decided to sequence the genomes of five males from three different African hunter-gatherer populations: Pygmies from Cameroon (pictured up top), and Khoesan-speaking Hadza and Sandawe from Tanzania.
Not All Genome Sequences are Created EqualBut wait — hang on a second. Fifteen genomes? Groundbreaking? Even if you haven't heard of initiatives like The X PRIZE in Genomics, or The 1000 Genomes Project, 15 probably doesn't sound like a whole lot. After all, rapid advances in sequencing technologies have begun to make whole-genome sequencing (wherein a person's entire genetic code is analyzed, as opposed to a small subset of genes) increasingly affordable — to the point that at least one company claims it can now accurately determine a person's full DNA blueprint for less than $1,000.
But 15 genomes is a big deal, because not all whole-genome analyses are created equal. Lachance, Tishkoff and their colleagues have acquired what are known as "high-coverage" whole-genome maps. Their method involves sequencing each strand of DNA more than 60 times in order to achieve unparalleled accuracy (a DNA blueprint examined this closely is said to have been sequenced "at >60x coverage.")
By comparison, note the researchers, "whole-genome sequencing in the 1000 Genomes Project has generally been at low coverage, and genetic diversity in many ethnically diverse populations is yet to be characterized, particularly with respect to Africa, the ancestral homeland of all modern humans." That makes the work of Lachance, Tishkoff and their colleagues the first population genomics analysis ever conducted using high-coverage whole genome sequencing.

Full size


Did Humans Interbreed with an Unknown Species of Hominid?The researchers' investigation has led to a number of insightful observations. Results from whole-genome sequencing suggest, for example, that these hunter-gatherer populations have likely responded to distinct, region-specific environmental factors by evolving in ways that are markedly different from agricultural and pastoral populations. Analysis of Pygmy DNA sequences also revealed a collection of genes that likely underlies the population's short stature. (Male Pygmies are typically less than five feet tall; Dr. Tishkoff is pictured here with women from the Western Pygmies of Cameroon.)
Even more intriguing, however, was the discovery of over 13-million genetic variants, that is: points in the genome where a single nucleotide differed from the human genome reference sequence. At the time of their discovery, a staggering 5-million of these variants were new to science.
"It was awe-inspiring to find millions of new variants that we never knew existed in our species," said Lachance in a statement. "It's humbling but invigorating to think about how to make sense of all this diversity."

Full size

That's not to say Lachance and his colleagues aren't trying to come up with an explanation. On the contrary, in their search for answers, the researchers claim to have made a remarkable discovery: fragments of DNA, different from those found in most modern-day humans, that point to ancient interbreeding between H. sapiens and an as-yet unidentified species of hominid — not Neanderthals, mind you, but an entirely new species we've yet to discover. That's a pretty bold claim, especially in the absence of any fossilized evidence to back it up. To date, hominid remains discovered in Africa have all resembled modern humans; and while paleoanthropologists sometimes criticize geneticists for ignoring this derth of paleontological evidence (Stanford researcher Richard Klein has described Lachance and Tishkoff's publication as "irresponsible"), the researchers believe their findings to be sound:
"Fossils degrade fast in Africa so we don't have a reference genome for this ancestral lineage," explained co-author Joshua Akey in a statement; but the researchers report that they've gone to great lengths to show that the genetic traces they've discovered resemble neither human nor Neanderthal DNA, and that no genome sequences taken from outside of Africa show any evidence of the foreign genetic material. Consequently, explains Akey, "one of the things we're thinking is it could have been a sibling species to Neanderthals."
Further investigations will help substantiate these claims, and Tishkoff reports that she intends to continue sequencing the genomes of more and more Africans.
"Our study emphasizes the critically important role of next-generation genome sequencing for elucidating the genetic basis of both normal variable traits in humans as well as identifying the genetic basis of human disease risk," she said.
The researchers' findings are published in the latest issue of Cell.

发表于 2012-7-28 19:49 | 显示全部楼层
...at least one company claims it can now accurately determine a person's full DNA blueprint for less than $1,000.
-----------------------------------
国外的技术发展真快~
发表于 2012-7-28 19:56 | 显示全部楼层
还是一个老问题:在发现更多的‘可提取有效染色体片段’的古人类人骨之前,某些未知的基因片段未必是来自其他人类,也可能是突变造成的。
发表于 2013-2-9 22:12 | 显示全部楼层
还是一个老问题:在发现更多的‘可提取有效染色体片段’的古人类人骨之前,某些未知的基因片段未必是来自其他人类,也可能是突变造成的。
imvivi001 发表于 2012-7-28 19:56


这2.5%的染色体,应该是在已知人类共有突变位点上未发生基因突变吧。已经突变的位点再突变回去的可能性极小。
发表于 2013-7-17 18:52 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 Ryan 于 2013-7-17 18:54 编辑

这个主题, 再关注一下。 以后可能有更大发现。

http://www.bio1000.com/periodical/cover/1/422619.html

Cell封面:非洲狩猎者的全基因组解密人类多样性和进化史
日期:2012-07-27 来源:Cell 作者:青岚 点击:

摘要:
遗传的历史就书写在现代非洲人的DNA中,但还需要一些调查工作来对其进行注释。在即将出现在8月3号《细胞》(Cell)杂志封面上的一篇报道中,宾夕法尼亚大学的遗传学家们和他们的同事对分属三个不同狩猎者(hunter-gatherer)群体的15个非洲人的完全测序基因组进行了分析,并破解了一些必定涉及人类多样性和进化的遗传密码的信息。

在非洲人类的多样性远胜过世界上任何其他的地方。不同的食物来源、地理、疾病和气候为自然选择提供了许多的目标,对非洲人施加强大的压力以改变和适应当地的环境。适应最好的个体最有可能复制和传递他们的基因组给后代。

遗传的历史就书写在现代非洲人的DNA中,但还需要一些调查工作来对其进行注释。在即将出现在8月3号《细胞》(Cell)杂志封面上的一篇报道中,宾夕法尼亚大学的遗传学家们和他们的同事对分属三个不同狩猎者(hunter-gatherer)群体的15个非洲人的完全测序基因组进行了分析,并破解了一些必定涉及人类多样性和进化的遗传密码的信息。

领导这一研究的是任职于宾夕法尼亚大学艺术与科学学院生物系和佩雷尔曼医学院遗传系的Sarah Tishkoff教授。

该研究讲述了几个故事。它鉴别了从前在人类中未知的数百万个遗传突变。它发现的证据表明现代人类的直系祖先有可能与未知古人类祖先群的成员发生了交配。它表明了不同的群体明显地进化以从当地的食物中获取营养并抵御传染疾病。它还确定了有可能在使俾格米人(Pygmies)身材变得矮小中起主要作用的新候选基因。

Tishkoff 说:“我们的分析揭示了人类的进化,因为我们采样的个体是有可能的所有其他现代人类的祖先群体的后裔。我们看到的信息是尽管我们采样的个体都是狩猎者,自然选择在这些不同的群体中起了不同的作用。”

研究人员对分别来自三个狩猎者群体的五个人的基因组进行了测序,包括非洲东部坦桑尼亚的桑达韦人(Sandawe)和哈扎人(Hadza)以及西部喀麦隆的俾格米人。这三个群体相互之间在外貌、语言、他们所居住的环境及文化习俗方面存在很大的差异,尽管桑达韦人和哈扎人居住地只有200公里远。
Tishkoff 说:“我们特意选择了三种最具差异的狩猎者群体。因为其他基因组测序项目往往聚焦的是非洲的多数群体,他们并没有得到极好地描述。这是一个独特且重要的数据。”

研究人员采用了一种方法使得对每条DNA链的测序次数平均超过60次。这样的重复使得测序高度准确,让遗传学家们确信他们发现的任何突变都是真实且没有错误的。扫描这些序列,研究人员在基因组中发现了1340个遗传变异或单个核苷酸不同于其他人类序列的位点,其中500万个是新增的。

博士后研究人员Lachance说:“发现了数以百万计的我们从不知道存在于我们的物种中的新变异,是令人惊叹的。它震撼人心但又令人鼓舞地思考了如何理解所有这种多样性。”
只有大约7.2万种这样的变异存在于代码基因的DNA区域。其余的都在非编码区域,有可能影响了基因如何及是否表达。
发表于 2013-7-17 20:57 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 Ryan 于 2013-7-17 20:58 编辑

发表于 2013-7-17 21:12 | 显示全部楼层
发现的证据表明现代人类的直系祖先有可能与未知古人类祖先群的成员发生了交配。
-----------------------------------------------

有可能...
发表于 2013-7-17 21:15 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 Ryan 于 2013-7-17 21:25 编辑

最近研读李辉老师的综述《从基因中重新认识人类进化历程》,注意到李辉老师提到“ Y染色体父系单倍群 A00有可能是来自罗德西亚人的混合。A00原估计为33万年。重新用Y染色体家系突变率估算的结果是 A00 与其他类群的分化年代大约为 20.9 万年,那样的话,A00还可能是现代人最早分化出的谱系,Y染色体与线粒体追溯到了同样的年代。”

Lachance2012基于常染色测序,推测非洲人身上有2.5%的另外一种未知人类的混合。这种混合大约发生在 20万~8万年之间。

我猜想,这种未知人类,是否就是罗德西亚人或者长者智人?   除了A00外,其他A0-T的总年代约为 14万年(? 需重新计算), 可见,20万年到14万年之间的时间还是很长的。

评分

1

查看全部评分

发表于 2013-7-17 21:29 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 Ryan 于 2013-7-17 21:41 编辑

根据李辉老师的描述:非洲的南方智人在至少 16 万年前开始发生明显的形态变化,在埃塞俄比亚演化出了长者智人,其形态间于罗德西亚人和现代人之间。但在埃塞俄比亚还发现了几近20万年前的奥莫现代人, 其形态特征已经基本属于现代人,而长者智人却还有更多类似罗得西亚人的特征。所以现代人至少 20 万年前就起源了。如果长者智人是罗得西亚人与现代人之间的过渡类型,说明长者智人可能在比 20 万年更早时间就形成了,只是有些群体并没有演化成现人的形态,一直保留到 16 万年前。但是这些最早的群体并不能全部生存下来,并不能把所有的基因库都流传到现代。
...(研究A00的学者)研究者认为现代人发生以后,在扩张过程中不断与残存的罗得西亚人群体混血,形成很多混合群体[11]。这样说来,长者智人更可能是混合群体,而不是进化中间步骤。这也更符合现代人-长者智人的先后关系。
******
据此推测, 罗德西亚人有多种后裔,其中一种在20万年前的时候,已经演化为奥莫现代人。另外有一种后裔,形体的变化较慢,演化为长者智人。 或者还有其他更多未知的后裔群体。


所有的罗德西亚人后裔之间,都是可以相互婚配并产生后代的。但是由于群体优势,后来,只有 A0-T(即狭义的现代人)的始祖的Y染色体得到繁衍,并最终在 6万年前走出非洲。  但是,在非洲大陆上,无论是mtDNA,还是Y染色体,都能找到 20万年以内的其他的分支。

评分

1

查看全部评分

发表于 2013-7-17 21:49 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 Ryan 于 2013-7-17 21:54 编辑

既然现代人与尼人能共享 40 多万年前的母系,那么 100万年以内的智人的三大分支,丹人、尼人和现代人之间,也应该都是可以相互婚配并产生后代的。

之所以考虑这个问题,是最近考虑人族内部的生殖隔离问题。 物种分离的实质是生殖隔离,而生殖隔离的实质是 染色体结构性变异。

因为丹人和尼人的基因组,都是将测得的 细小片段,一点一点地 mapping 到现代人的基因组框架上的。这种方法,不能发现它们与现代人是否有染色体结构性的差异。 除非是找到一个活的 丹人和尼人---这是不可能的。
发表于 2013-7-17 22:02 | 显示全部楼层
说不定欧亚大陆真有“野人”存在。
发表于 2013-7-18 02:58 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 Ryan 于 2013-7-18 10:23 编辑
既然现代人与尼人能共享 40 多万年前的母系,那么 100万年以内的智人的三大分支,丹人、尼人和现代人之间,也应该都是可以相互婚配并产生后代的。

之所以考虑这个问题,是最近考虑人族内部的生殖隔离问题。 物种分 ...
Ryan 发表于 2013-7-17 21:49


我也一直有类似的想法(见我以前的帖子:http://www.ranhaer.com/thread-16703-1-3.html),不知道人类23对染色体是什么时候形成的?

补充:
又看了一下WIKI(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chromosome_2_%28human%29),似乎可以从染色体的某些特点推断出染色体的个数。丹人尼人很可能都是24对染色体。

这么说2号染色体的形成跟现代人的形成可能有重要关系。

在我那个帖子里,两年前我说过:
比如说人有23对染色体而所有的猿类都有48条。就是在形成人的过程中染色体发生的变化。今天的人类是由一小群祖先发展起来的,而这一小群初始人刚好多数都有23对染色体。我觉得这也许是人类进化上一个非常重要的事件,因为这一下了就产生了生殖隔离-新物种就形成了。

评分

1

查看全部评分

发表于 2013-7-18 10:49 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 Ryan 于 2013-7-18 14:32 编辑

丹人基因组的原文,
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3617501/

Of more relevance may be examination of aspects of the Denisovan karyotype. The great apes have 24 pairs of chromosomes while humans have 23. This difference is caused by a fusion of two acrocentric chromosomes that formed the metacentric human chromosome 2 (25), and resulted in the unique head-to-head joining of the telomeric hexameric repeat GGGGTT. A difference in karyotype would likely have reduced the fertility of any offspring of Denisovans and modern humans. We searched all DNA fragments sequenced from the Denisovan individual and identified twelve fragments containing joined repeats. By contrast, reads from several chimpanzees and bonobos failed to yield any such fragments (8). We conclude that Denisovans and modern humans (and presumably Neandertals) shared a karyotype consisting of 46 chromosomes.

(除了深色皮肤, 棕色头发和棕色虹膜颜色的基因与现代人有相似性外) 更多的相关性可以从对丹人的核型的观测得到。大猩猩有24对染色体,而人类只有23对。这个差异是由两个近端着丝的染色体的融合导致的。这个融合形成了具有中间着丝点的人类2号染色体(25), 并导致独特的两个末端着丝粒重复单元的相互融合。据估计,核型的不同将会降低所有丹人和现代人的混血后裔的繁殖能力。我们搜索了这个丹人个体基因组的所有基因片段,发现有12个片段包含连接处的重复单元joined repeats。相反,从数个黑猩猩和倭黑猩猩的基因组上我们无法找到任何这样的片段。我们认为,丹人和现代人(或许加上尼人)共享一样的核型,即含有46条染色体。

原文附件 p53-p54:

Note 14: Chromosome Two Fusion Site
  
Kay Prüfer*
* To whom correspondence should be addressed (pruefer@eva.mpg.de)

Modern humans differ from all other great apes in their number of autosomal chromosomes. This difference is caused by a fusion of two separate chromosomes (termed 2a and 2b in non-human great apes) into chromosome 2 (91). The fusion left a region with telomeric repeats that meet in  forward and reverse direction in the interior of chromosome 2, in congruence with a head-to-head fusion of the original chromosomes (25). Here, we use the Denisova data to scan for reads that cover the site where the forward and reverse telomeric repeat sequence meet. A total of 12 unique fragments cover this position. In contrast, no alignments are found when testing over 20x
genome coverage Illumina shotgun data from 16 chimpanzees and 3 bonobos. The chromosome two fusion is thus found in Denisovans and the fusion event must predate the split of Denisova and modern human.  

Alignments to the Chromosome 2 Fusion Site
We scanned the alignments of all Denisovan reads to the human genome (see Note 4) for reads covering the chromosome 2 fusion site (hg19, chr2:114360250-114360750). We identified one read with a trimmed length of 57 bps that shows both the forward and reverse telomere repeat motif and maps uniquely to the region (mapping quality = 37). Due to the palindromic nature of the region forward and reverse alignments of this read both yield an alignment with three mismatches and one gap (see Fig. S26).  

Realignment of Denisova Data
In order to identify more reads covering the fusion site, we used the identified read to construct two 500 basepair long target sequences that include the Denisova-specific substitutions observed in forward and reverse direction. We realign all untrimmed Denisovan reads to these constructed fusion sequences using BWA with more permissive alignment criteria (parameters: -o 3 -n 0.001
-l 16500). We identified12 unique fragments (i.e. reads with alignments in different orientation and different start and end coordinates) showing the forward and reverse telomeric repeat sequences (see Fig. S27).  
  When we realign these 12 unique fragments to the entire human genome (hg19) with the same relaxed parameters we find that fragments align either uniquely (5/12; mapping quality = 37) or have no alignment (7/12).

Testing Chimpanzee and Bonobo Sequences
Using identical alignment parameters and the constructed Denisovan target sequences, we test for the presence of similar sequences in Illumina sequencing data from 16 chimpanzees and 3 bonobos summing to a total of over 20x genome coverage combining all individuals (84). We find no read showing forward and reverse telomeric repeat sequences.
发表于 2013-7-18 11:11 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 一统浆糊 于 2013-7-18 11:13 编辑
丹人基因组的原文,
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3617501/

Of more relevance may be examination of aspects of the Denisovan karyotype. The great apes have 24 pairs of chromosomes whil ...
Ryan 发表于 2013-7-18 10:49


我没看原文,搞错了。WIKI害人,所言不虚。
看来丹人更有可能是23对染色体,不知尼人如何。
不知有没有办法确定2号染色体FUSE的时间。我还是相信这个事件极可能在人类进化史上有一定的地位。
发表于 2013-7-18 11:21 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 Ryan 于 2013-7-18 14:34 编辑

根据全基因组的文献,尼人和丹人之间有大约 60 万年的分化,而他们与现代人都有大约 80 万年的分化。即相对于现代人,在常染色体上,尼人和丹人有更近的亲缘关系。


也亏你提醒,我才去看看原文。

丹人基因组的原文对于这个问题语焉不详。原文说, 找到了12个 joined repeats,但没有说明确地说这些 joined repeats 就是 人类2号染色体融合处的  joined repeats。但后面又说,这些 joined repeats在黑猩猩和倭黑猩猩都没有找到。后面就是结论了。

但是,现在应该有把握这样说吧:作者在丹人基因组上找到了 12个包含joined repeats的DNA片段,这种重复片段就是 人类2号染色体融合处的特征joined repeats。而因为这次融合是现代人的始祖身上发生的,黑猩猩和倭黑猩猩身上并未发生,在后者的基因组也没有找到任何一个这种类型的片段。所以,作者推测,丹人具有和现代人一样的核型。
发表于 2013-7-18 11:32 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 Ryan 于 2013-7-18 11:34 编辑

在mtDNA方面,现代人与尼人分开 40 多万年,两者与丹人分开大约 100 万年[1]。 也就是说,现代人的始祖和尼人共享40多万年前的母系。

这样综合看来,丹人,现代人和尼人极有可能共享一样的核型,三者之间不存在生殖隔离。


[1]Krause J, Fu Q, Good JM, Viola B, Shunkov MV, Derevianko AP,  Pä äbo S  (2010)  The complete mitochondrial DNA genome of an unknown hominin from southern Siberia. Nature, 464 (7290): 894-897.
发表于 2013-7-18 11:59 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 Ryan 于 2013-7-18 12:05 编辑

现在,值得关注的就是,直立人的基因是否在现代人身上有保留。弗洛勒斯人的遗骨已经发掘出了很多具,年代也足够晚,测基因组是相当有希望的。梭罗人活动的年代也挺晚的。



这个染色体融合发生的年代,理论上是可以估计的。因为现在大部分人族各分支的基因组都测了,某一区域内的突变速率,应该是已经有了的。
发表于 2013-7-18 12:30 | 显示全部楼层
在mtDNA方面,现代人与尼人分开 40 多万年,两者与丹人分开大约 100 万年[1]。 也就是说,现代人的始祖和尼人共享40多万年前的母系。

这样综合看来,丹人,现代人和尼人极有可能共享一样的核型,三者之间不存在生 ...
Ryan 发表于 2013-7-18 11:32


生殖隔离不仅只与核型有关吧?黑猩猩与大猩猩都有24对染吧,想必有生殖隔离。如果染色体中小问题过多,也会massup.
发表于 2013-7-18 12:50 | 显示全部楼层
现在,值得关注的就是,直立人的基因是否在现代人身上有保留。弗洛勒斯人的遗骨已经发掘出了很多具,年代也足够晚,测基因组是相当有希望的。梭罗人活动的年代也挺晚的。



这个染色体融合发生的年代,理论上是 ...
Ryan 发表于 2013-7-18 11:59

是呀,真得很期待弗人的基因组结果,不知道有没有正在做这个。
您需要登录后才可以回帖 登录 | 注册

本版积分规则

小黑屋|手机版|Archiver|人类生物学在线 ( 苏ICP备16053048号 )

GMT+8, 2020-7-14 07:43 , Processed in 0.129916 second(s), 21 queries .

Powered by Discuz! X3.4

© 2001-2017 Comsenz Inc.

快速回复 返回顶部 返回列表