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阿富汗y染色体

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发表于 2012-3-29 08:31 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
Afghanistan's Ethnic Groups Share a Y-Chromosomal Heritage Structured by Historical Events

Abstract

Afghanistan has held a strategic position throughout history. It has been inhabited since the Paleolithic and later became a crossroad for expanding civilizations and empires. Afghanistan's location, history, and diverse ethnic groups present a unique opportunity to explore how nations and ethnic groups emerged, and how major cultural evolutions and technological developments in human history have influenced modern population structures. In this study we have analyzed, for the first time, the four major ethnic groups in present-day Afghanistan: Hazara, Pashtun, Tajik, and Uzbek, using 52 binary markers and 19 short tandem repeats on the non-recombinant segment of the Y-chromosome. A total of 204 Afghan samples were investigated along with more than 8,500 samples from surrounding populations important to Afghanistan's history through migrations and conquests, including Iranians, Greeks, Indians, Middle Easterners, East Europeans, and East Asians. Our results suggest that all current Afghans largely share a heritage derived from a common unstructured ancestral population that could have emerged during the Neolithic revolution and the formation of the first farming communities. Our results also indicate that inter-Afghan differentiation started during the Bronze Age, probably driven by the formation of the first civilizations in the region. Later migrations and invasions into the region have been assimilated differentially among the ethnic groups, increasing inter-population genetic differences, and giving the Afghans a unique genetic diversity in Central Asia.

Results

Haplogroup frequencies across the major ethnic groups revealed large differences. In particular, frequencies of haplogroup C3-M217, which is mainly found in East Asia, and haplogroup R1a1a-M17, which is found in Eurasia, varied substantially among the Afghan groups. C3-M217 was significantly more frequent (p = 4.55×10−9) in Uzbeks (41.18%) and Hazaras (33.33%) than it was in Tajiks (3.57%) and Pashtuns (2.04%). On the other hand, R1a1a-M17 was significantly more frequent (p = 3.00×10−6) in Pashtuns (51.02%) and Tajiks (30.36%) than in Uzbeks (17.65%) and Hazaras (6.67%). RM networks of C3-M217 (Figure S1A) and R1a1a-M17 (Figure S1B) show that when a haplogroup was infrequent in an ethnic group, its haplotypes existed on branches not shared with other Afghans, suggesting that the underrepresented haplogroups are not the result of a gene flow between the ethnic groups, but probably a direct assimilation from source populations.

Haplogroups autochthonous to India [15]; L-M20, H-M69, and R2a-M124 were found more (p = 0.004) in Pashtuns (20.41%) and Tajiks (19.64%) than in Uzbeks (5.88%) and Hazaras (5%). E1b1b1-M35 was found in Hazaras (5%) and Uzbeks (5.88%) but not in Pashtuns and Tajiks. RM network of E1b1b1-M35 (Figure S1C) shows that Afghanistan's lineages are correlated with Middle Easterners and Iranians. We also note the presence of the African B-M60 only in Hazara, with a relatively recent common founder ancestor from East Africa as shown in the RM network (Figure S1D).

http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0034288

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发表于 2012-3-29 09:11 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 songkoro 于 2012-3-29 09:25 编辑

Hazara人的B 可能是B2a1a
In Eurasia, haplogroup B2a1a Y-DNA has been found in 3% (3/117) of a sample of Iranians from southern Iran and 2% (2/88) of a sample from Pakistan and India.

Sample  codeEthnicityFather birth place*ISOGG2011Final Y-SNPDYS426DYS388DYS389I
111HazaraBamyan, BamyanBM60111213
115HazaraGhorBM60111213
120HazaraBamyan, BamyanBM60111213

DYS389IIDYS390DYS456DYS19DYS385aDYS385bDYS458DYS437
28231515111117.215
28231515111417.215
28231515111417.215

DYS438DYS448GATA H4DYS391DYS392DYS393DYS439DYS635
1020111011131023
1020111011131023
1020111011131022
发表于 2012-3-29 12:15 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 雄镇散人 于 2012-3-29 13:08 编辑
DYS426        DYS388        DYS389I        DYS389II        DYS390        DYS456        DYS19        DYS385a        DYS385b        DYS458        DYS437        DYS438        DYS448        GATA H4        DYS391        DYS392        DYS393        DYS439        DYS635
11        12        13        28        23        15        14        12        16        18        15        10        19        12        10        12        12        12        20
这一 ...
sahaliyan 发表于 2012-3-29 11:48


单倍群O方面,除了其中一例不是很确定之外,其他很容易判断,应该主要就是O3-M134、O2b*-M176、O3-M324+(不确定是否为002611+)和O2*-M268四种类型。

EthnicityFather birth place*Estimated SNPDYS426DYS388DYS19DYS389IDYS389b
TajikBadakhshanM134+ M117-?1112151216
HazaraKabul, KabulM134+ M117-1112141315
BalushKandahar, KandaharM176+ 47z-1113151314
TajikTakharM134+ M117-1112151218
TajikTakharM324+ (JST002611+?)1112161216
TajikTakharM268+ PK4- M176-1112151516
TajikTakharM324+ (JST002611+?)1112161216



DYS390DYS391DYS392DYS393DYS437DYS438DYS439
23101412151012
23101212151012
23101413141213
23111212151013
2510131214912
24101314141012
2510131214912



DYS448DYS456DYS458DYS635GATA H4DYS385aDYS385b
18151621121217
19151820121216
19151621111010
19181922121216
19141720121219
18151623121218
19141720121219


第一个我感觉也很有可能是M134*,不过392上奇葩了些,是14。不妨比较一下乃蛮的392等于13的那些,看看其他点是否接近。
发表于 2012-3-29 12:18 | 显示全部楼层
可见中亚也有O2b*的哦。
发表于 2012-3-29 12:26 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 雄镇散人 于 2012-3-29 13:06 编辑

第一个如果不是M134*,那就是P164*,不过M134*可能性更大些。

考虑到635的突变率比389b还低一些,635差2不是小差异,而这里的M134*在635的中心值上都与中心值(本案M134*的635中心值是19左右)差了2以上,因此这些支系都不太可能与晚近东亚大陆人群的活动有关。
发表于 2012-3-29 12:47 | 显示全部楼层
55H51HanJilin heilongjiang1  
123BadakhshanTajikafghanistan1M175O

DYS388DYS 19/394DYS389ABDYS389CDDYS390DYS391DYS392DYS393DYS426
 14121623101412 
121512162310141211


DYS437DYS438DYS439DYS385aDYS385bY GATA H4DYS448DYS456DYS458DYS 635
1510121217     
15101212171218151621
发表于 2012-3-29 13:22 | 显示全部楼层
Sorry,算错了几个点,导致重大的误差:

第5个和第7个仍不能判定是否为002611+,只能改判M324+。

EthnicityFather birth place*Estimated SNPDYS426DYS388DYS19DYS389IDYS389b
TajikTakharM324+ (JST002611+?)1112161216
TajikTakharM324+ (JST002611+?)1112161216


DYS390DYS391DYS392DYS393DYS437DYS438DYS439
2510131214912
2510131214912


DYS448DYS456DYS458DYS635GATA H4DYS385aDYS385b
19141720121219
19141720121219


习惯了看002611+的456取低值,以及部分点的特点。。

以后尽量避免类似的重大低级失误!!
发表于 2012-3-29 21:06 | 显示全部楼层
uzbek样本的C3有没有接近的样本?貌似没有星簇。
发表于 2012-3-30 12:34 | 显示全部楼层
refSAMPNAMEPopulationlocation,freSNPHG
20CB149JapaneseJapan1SRY465O2b*
115CB149JapaneseJapan1 O2b*
123Kandahar, KandaharBalushafghanistan1M175O


DYS388DYS 19/394DYS389ABDYS389CDDYS390DYS391DYS392DYS393DYS426
1315131523101413 
1315131523101413 
131513142310141311


DYS437DYS438DYS439DYS385aDYS385bY GATA H4DYS448DYS456DYS458DYS 635
1412121019     
1412121019     
14121310101119151621


推测为O2b*。
发表于 2012-3-30 12:55 | 显示全部楼层
refSAMPNAMEPopulationlocation,fre
43BuryatMongolBuryatia1
44239Tuvinians 1
44395MongolBuryatia1
44395MongolBuryatia1
4429'Shors 1
73 BelgorodBelgorod1
73 SaratovSaratov1
80H233Xiboliaoning1
95239Tuvinians 1
9529'Shors 1
95BG II-40Russians 1
95SA10Russians 1
123GhorHazaraafghanistan1
123Balkh, Mazar-e SharifHazaraafghanistan1
123Balkh, BalkhHazaraafghanistan1
123Balkh, BalkhHazaraafghanistan1

DYS388DYS 19/394DYS389ABDYS389CDDYS390DYS391DYS392DYS393DYS426
 17131624101113 
 17131625101113 
 17131624101113 
 17131624101113 
 17131625101113 
 17131625101113 
 17131625101113 
 17131625101113 
 17131625101113 
 17131625101113 
 17131625101113 
 17131625101113 
141713162510111311
141713162510111311
141713162510111311
141713162510111311
发表于 2012-3-30 12:55 | 显示全部楼层
哈扎拉这些star cluster样本,更接近西伯利亚的布里亚特、绍尔、图瓦等样本,以及为数不少的俄罗斯人,以及一例锡伯族。

DYS426DYS437DYS438DYS439DYS385aDYS385bY GATA H4DYS448DYS456DYS458DYS 635
 1410101212     
 1410101212     
 1410101212     
 1410101212     
 1410101212     
 1410101212     
 1410101212     
 1410111212     
 1410101212     
 1410101212     
 1410101212     
 1410101212     
1114101012121122151821
1114101012121122151921
1114101012121122151822
1114101012121122151821
发表于 2012-3-30 13:04 | 显示全部楼层
refSAMPNAMEPopulationlocation,freSNPHG
30H137HanShanxi   
123Kabul, KabulHazaraafghanistan1M175O

DYS388DYS 19/394DYS389ABDYS389CDDYS390DYS391DYS392DYS393DYS426
 14131623101212 
121413152310121211


DYS437DYS438DYS439DYS385aDYS385bY GATA H4DYS448DYS456DYS458DYS 635
15101113161319151821
15101212161219151820


较接近一例山西汉族样本,推测为M134*。
发表于 2012-3-31 10:15 | 显示全部楼层
uzbek样本的C3有没有接近的样本?貌似没有星簇。
bugz 发表于 2012-3-29 21:06


385b有一步突变,接近星簇。

refSAMPNAMEPopulationlocation,fre
4441Altaian Kazakhs 1
4422Mongol 1
9541Altaian Kazakhs 1
9522Mongol 1
123TakharUzbekafghanistan1
123TakharUzbekafghanistan1
123TakharUzbekafghanistan1
123TakharUzbekafghanistan1


DYS388DYS 19/394DYS389ABDYS389CDDYS390DYS391DYS392DYS393DYS426
 16131625101113 
 16131625101113 
 16131625101113 
 16131625101113 
141613162510111311
141613162510111311
141613162510111311
141613162510111311


DYS437DYS438DYS439DYS385aDYS385bY GATA H4DYS448DYS456DYS458DYS 635
1410101113     
1410101113     
1410101113     
1410101113     
14101011121122151821
14101011121122151821
14101011121122151821
14101011121122151821

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发表于 2017-6-12 20:46 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 双头鹰 于 2017-6-12 23:06 编辑

翻旧帖,发现这批阿富汗哈扎拉人数据里有个C2南支的簇,和Yfull上那个巴基斯坦人17STR全同的3人,差2步的1人,应该是CTS4449

QQ图片20170612175243.png
yfull上的那个巴基斯坦哈扎拉人
QQ图片20170612205004.png
这个簇看来在哈扎拉人里面有一定比例,样本都是采自不同地区的
发表于 2019-10-23 10:27 | 显示全部楼层
这篇文章重新提一下,里面数据很多。现在如果有人能重新匹配可能会有更多收获。
发表于 2019-10-23 10:46 | 显示全部楼层
总共206个Y样本,R1b只有5个,其中P297(xM269)两个,M269(xU106)3个。P297(xM269)基本可以确定是M478(也就是M73),M269(xU106)最大的可能是Z2103。这样的比例结果和阿凡纳羡沃文化很类似。当然比例很低,这和印度的结果是一致的。
发表于 2019-10-23 11:14 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 wolfgang 于 2019-10-23 17:00 编辑

很诡异的一件事,按理来说伊朗R1a也不少,可是我在full上查到的四个伊朗样本都是属于CTS6下的,R-CTS6的上游是R-F1345,R-F1345的上游是R-Z2122,都没有什么印度次大陆样本。只有R-Z2122的兄弟支系R-Z2125下的R-Z2123才会出现一定比例的印度次大陆样本。而这些距离L657都很远。
发表于 2019-10-25 17:07 | 显示全部楼层
阿富汗的J基本是J2a*和J2a5,这和印度次大陆以J2b2为主完全不同,代表了完全不同的农业人群来源。Baluch人以L1a为绝对优势,显示了典型的南路农业人群特色。哈扎拉人和乌兹别克人的高频C3显示了他们的突厥特色。
发表于 2019-10-25 22:22 | 显示全部楼层
wolfgang 发表于 2019-10-25 17:07
阿富汗的J基本是J2a*和J2a5,这和印度次大陆以J2b2为主完全不同,代表了完全不同的农业人群来源。Baluch人 ...

南亚不是也有不少J2a么
发表于 2019-10-25 22:43 | 显示全部楼层
bacerlona 发表于 2019-10-25 22:22
南亚不是也有不少J2a么

总量不少,但是比例和J2b2没法比。早期到印度河谷和阿富汗的农业人群是两个不同的人群,虽然后来这两个人群有一些基因交流。
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