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南亚,安达曼人以及人类"早期"迁徙的遗传学证据

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发表于 2010-1-23 16:18 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
South Asia, the Andamanese, and the genetic evidence for an "early" human dispersal out of Africa.

To the Editor:
The out-of-Africa model of anatomically modern human evolution posits an African origin 100,000–200,000 years ago, followed by subsequent dispersal(s) to Eurasia and other continents within the last 100,000 years (Stringer and Andrews 1988). Although alternative models have been proposed, the out-of-Africa scenario receives the most support both from archeological and genetic evidence (Lahr and Foley 1994). However, the route(s) followed by the African migrants remain poorly understood. One proposed route was through northern Africa toward the Levant, which finds support in the archeological and fossil records (Lahr and Foley 1994). This exit of modern humans out of Africa would have taken place during the Upper Paleolithic era (~45,000 years ago), which considerably postdates the earliest evidence of modern human presence in the Sahul. Indeed, luminescence dating, paleovegetation changes, and skeletal remains suggest that Australia was inhabited by modern humans by 60,000 years ago (Roberts and Jones 1994; Johnson et al. 1999; Miller et al. 1999; Thorne et al. 1999), implying a substantially earlier migration from Africa to Australia. To take this evidence into account, as well as morphological and archeological features of many Australian fossils, a second migration of modern humans, known as the “southern route” hypothesis, was suggested to have occurred during Middle Paleolithic times (60,000–100,000 years ago) from eastern Africa to Sahul via South Asia (Cavalli-Sforza et al. 1994; Lahr and Foley 1994).


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